Remediation guidance 7.
Methodology of quantitative risk assessment (2004)

  • Preface
  • 1. Introduction (F. Gondi, Sz. Halmóczki)
    • 1.1. Environmental risks and taken measures
    • 1.2. Aim and subject of the Guidance
  • 2. International application of quantitative risk assessment – overview and comparative description (Gy. Dankó, Gy. Dura, I. Szabó)
    • 2.1. Trends in risk assessment, European legislation
    • 2.2. Main characteristics of human health risk assessment
      • 2.2.1. Selection criteria for priority contaminants
      • 2.2.2. Conditions for the selection of the appropriate toxicological and epidemiological data
      • 2.2.3. Interpretation of toxicological and risk assessment results
      • 2.2.4. Applicability of results, risk of (contaminant)mixtures
    • 2.3. Ecological risk assessment in practice
      • 2.3.1. Use of general concentration values (PNEC)
      • 2.3.2. Ecotoxicological analyses on contaminated samples
      • 2.3.3. Biomonitoring
    • 2.4. Groundwater as receptor
    • Bibliography
  • 3. Recommended Hungarian method (Gy. Dankó, Gy. Dura, F. Gondi, Zs. Ligeti, I. Szabó)
    • 3.1. Field of application of the recommended method
    • 3.2. Place and role of risk assessment in the remediation process
    • 3.3. Involvement of stake-holders in the quantitative risk assessment process
    • 3.4. Scheme of the process
    • 3.5. Principles
    • 3.6. Approach to ensure the protection of groundwaters
      • 3.6.1. Limitation of the vertical spreading of contaminants
      • 3.6.2. Limitation of the horizontal spreading of contaminants (new element of the recommended procedure)
      • 3.6.3. Further considerations and statements in connection with the horizontal spreading of contaminants
    • 3.7. Risk model
    • 3.8. Contaminated site and pollution source
    • 3.9. Identification of contaminants
    • 3.10. Assessment of exposure
      • 3.10.1. Calculation of the predicted environmental concentration (PEC)
      • 3.10.2. Receptors
      • 3.10.3. Land and water uses
      • 3.10.4. Ways and parameters of exposure, determination of the average daily intake
    • 3.11. Receptors and risk assessment
    • 3.12. Iterative quantitative risk assessment method
      • 3.12.1. Increasing the accuracy on the receptor-side
      • 3.12.2. Increasing the accuracy on the impact-side
      • 3.12.3. Increasing the accuracy of the tolerable risk levels
    • Bibliography
  • Annexes
    • 1. Quantitative risk assessment abroad
    • 2. Antecedents of quantitative risk assessment in Hungary
    • 3. Definitions
    • 4. Data demand, quality, uncertainty, reliability of data
    • 5. Processes taking place on the way between pollution source and receptors
    • 6. Human exposure parameters


The aim of this study is

  • on one hand to give an overview on the methods of environmental and human health quantitative risk assessment in practical use based on the international (mainly European) and Hungarian research results and experience
  • and on the other to elaborate the Hungarian method of quantitative risk assessment based on the experience mentioned above and taking into consideration the Hungarian geological-hydrogeological and environmental health characteristics, as well as the relevant Hungarian legislation. The Hungarian method should be in compliance with the Government Decree 33/2000. (III. 17.) Korm. and should provide a logical and regulated frame for the determination of the remediation pollution limit value (D) of polluted groundwater and geological medium.

The subject of this study is the quantitative assessment of risks posed on human health and ecology caused by the damaged in the underground of polluted sites. The study does not deal with the survey and assessment of risks caused directly by air and surface water pollution, improper wastewater treatment, inadequate labour hygiene or the inobservance of food and chemical safety regulations. In Chapter 2 you will find an overview of international experience in risk assessment, with emphasis on ecological risk assessment types and solutions used in groundwater protection. Chapter 3 describes the Hungarian quantitative risk assessment method, which was compiled under consideration of the elements of non-Hungarian methods that are also applicable in our country.

This guide may provide help to all parties involved in the treatment procedure of polluted sites, that means the owner of the site, representatives of the proceeding authority, local governments, NGO-s, and last but not least the experts carrying out risk assessment. The principles and data demand specified in this guide provides support for authorities in their decisions concerning the control and approval of risk assessment tasks and of the remediation limit value (D) determined in the course of these.