Remediation guidance 6.
Site inspection and monitoring. Site inspection of contaminated areas and remediation monitoring systems (2003)
Contents

  • Preface
  • Introduction
  • I. SITE INVESTIGATION METHODS
    • 1. Types of site investigation
      • 1.1. Preliminary site investigation
      • 1.2. Detailed site investigation
    • 2. Collection and processing of data necessary for the planning of site investigations
      • 2.1. Collection of archive data on the pollution and the affected area
      • 2.2. Use of aerial photos in the planning of site investigation
      • 2.3. Collection of official decisions, pieces of legislation
      • 2.4. Preliminary field visit
      • 2.5. Processing of the collected data
    • 3. The site investigation plan and its structure
      • 3.1. Introduction
      • 3.2. Antecedents
      • 3.3. Geological, hydrogeological characteristics of the damaged area
      • 3.4. General plan of investigations
        • 3.4.1. Horizontal and vertical delimitation of the investigated area
        • 3.4.2. Description and justification of the proposed investigations
        • 3.4.3. Research methods and the succession of their application
        • 3.4.4. Planning of the chemical investigations
      • 3.5. Management tasks, safety engineering
      • 3.6. Expected environmental impact of the site investigation
      • 3.7. Schedule of site investigative works
    • 4. Submission for approval of the site investigation plan to the environmental authority in charge
    • 5. Implementation of the site investigation work phases
      • 5.1. Preparatory tasks
      • 5.2. Geodesic tasks
      • 5.3. Open cuts
      • 5.4. Point investigations
        • 5.4.1. Shallow groundwater and soil sampling sondes
        • 5.4.2. Drilling
      • 5.5. Establishment of shallow groundwater sampling points
        • 5.5.1. Principles for sampling point construction
        • 5.5.2. Construction of shallow groundwater wells
      • 5.6. In situ investigations in drill-holes and observation wells
        • 5.6.1. The impact of LNAPL contaminants on the water level
        • 5.6.2. Determination of the real thickness of LNAPL contamination
      • 5.7. Collection, delivery for analyses
        • 5.7.1. Environmental air sampling
        • 5.7.2. Investigation of interstitial air
        • 5.7.3. Soil sampling
        • 5.7.4. Soil moisture sampling
        • 5.7.5. Surface water sampling
        • 5.7.6. Groundwater sampling
          • 5.7.6.1. Well-development
          • 5.7.6.2. Groundwater sampling tools
          • 5.7.6.3. Cleaning of sampling equipment
          • 5.7.6.4. Shallow groundwater sampling
          • 5.7.6.5. In situ analysis connected to water sampling
          • 5.7.6.6. Conservation, storage of water samples
          • 5.7.6.7. Quality assurance and control in site investigations
      • 5.8. Geophysical investigations
      • 5.9. Laboratory analyses of environmental samples
      • 5.10. Environmental isotope investigations
    • 6. Evaluation of the results of site investigation
      • 6.1. Evaluation and representation of the investigation results
        • 6.1.1. Description of the explored sequence of layers
        • 6.1.2. Drawing of hydrogeological cross-sections
        • 6.1.3. Presentation of data by maps
          • 6.1.3.1. The role of relief
          • 6.1.3.2. Potentiometric surface maps
          • 6.1.3.3. Flow lines
          • 6.1.3.4. Izo-concentration maps of contaminants and their breakdown products
          • 6.1.3.5. Izo-concentration maps of electron donors, inorganic electron acceptors and metabolic products
        • 6.2. Quantitative estimation of contaminants
        • 6.3. Contaminant transport modelling
        • 6.4. Risk assessment
    • 7. Compilation and submission of the final report to the environmental authority in charge
      • 7.1. Structure of the final report of site investigation
      • 7.2. Annexes to the final report of site investigation
        • 7.2.1. Tables
        • 7.2.2. Figures
        • 7.2.3. Other types of annexes
      • 7.3. Submission of the final report of site investigation to the environmental authority in charge
  • II. MONITORING
    • 1. Monitoring in the different inspection phases of polluting activities, pollution sources, remediation and permanently damaged areas
      • 1.1. Monitoring in connection with the legal disposal and discharge of dangerous substances
      • 1.2. Remedial monitoring
        • 1.2.1. Monitoring methods and work stages in the site investigation phase
        • 1.2.2. Monitoring methods and work stages in the technical intervention phase
        • 1.2.3. Monitoring of permanent environmental damage
      • 1.3. Operational phases of monitoring and persons in charge
    • 2. Target objects of monitoring
      • 2.1. Monitoring of contamination in soil and geological medium
      • 2.2. Monitoring of contamination in groundwater and surface water
      • 2.3. Air monitoring
      • 2.4. Biomonitoring
    • 3. Tools of monitoring investigations
      • 3.1. Fluid-level and discharge measurements
      • 3.2. Sampling
      • 3.3. Parameters for investigation
    • 4. Density and sampling frequency of monitoring points
      • 4.1. Aspects of the establishment of the monitoring network
      • 4.2. Monitoring frequency
        • 4.2.1. Frequency of the regular monitoring
        • 4.2.2. Repeated surveys
      • 4.3. Supplementary monitoring
    • 5. Monitoring of natural attenuation
      • 5.1. Function and characteristics of natural attenuation processes
      • 5.2. Physical attenuation processes
        • 5.2.1. Mechanical dispersion
        • 5.2.2. Molecular diffusion
        • 5.2.3. Dilution
        • 5.2.4. Evaporation
      • 5.3. Chemical attenuation processes characteristic for organic compounds
        • 5.3.1. Sorption
        • 5.3.2. Ionisation, cosolvency
        • 5.3.3. Abiotic chemical reactions
          • 5.3.3.1. Hydrolysis
          • 5.3.3.2. Substitutions
          • 5.3.3.3. Elimination
          • 5.3.3.4. Oxidation/reduction
      • 5.4. Chemical attenuation processes characteristic for inorganic compounds
        • 5.4.1. Chemical speciacion
        • 5.4.2. Dissolution, precipitation
        • 5.4.3. Oxidation/reduction
        • 5.4.4. Adsorption, ion exchange
        • 5.4.5. Particle transport
        • 5.4.6. Reactions between organic and inorganic substances
      • 5.5. Biodegradation
      • 5.6. Proofs of natural attenuation
      • 5.7. The minimum requirements of data necessary for the monitoring of natural attenuation, parameters for investigation
      • 5.8. How to express in numbers the extent of natural attenuation
    • 6. Presentation of monitoring results
      • 6.1. Changes in liquid level
      • 6.2. Concentration changes of solute and bonded substances
      • 6.3. Routine hydro chemical and geochemical parameters
        • 6.3.1. Routine hydro chemical parameters
        • 6.3.2. Geochemical parameters
    • 7. Evaluation of monitoring results
      • 7.1. Evaluation of the contamination process, revision of the monitoring system
      • 7.2. Tasks in connection with evaluation
    • 8. Documentation and supply of data
      • 8.1. Technical data of the observation points
      • 8.2. Processing and storage of monitoring data
      • 8.3. Rules on data supply
  • ANNEXES
    • 1. Address of institutions
    • 2/a. Surface and groundwaters, eluates
    • 2/b. Soil and waste
    • 2/c. Soil air
    • 3. Recommended analysis schemes
    • 4. Most frequently used field techniques for underground sampling and monitoring (EPA 625/R-93/003)
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY

INTRODUCTION

The 6th guide of the National Environmental Remediation Program provides methodological assistance for the planning, implementation and documentation of the site investigations of polluted areas, as well as for the planning, operation and control of the monitoring systems in the different phases of remediation.

Pieces of legislation providing relevant regulations are Government Decree 33/2000. (III. 17.) Korm. on activities affecting the quality of groundwater (hereinafter referred to as GD) and the closely related Joint-decree 10/2000. (VI. 2.) KM-EM-FVM-KHVM on limit values established for the protection of groundwater and the geological medium (hereinafter referred to as JD).

The GD provides for regulations on the prevention of pollution of groundwater and the geological medium, on the reduction and elimination of contamination and damage in cases of pollutant-concentrations exceeding limit values.

Acc. to Paragraph (1) of Article 18 of GD remediation consists of the following phases

  • a) site investigation, which may comprise preliminary site investigation and detailed site investigation,
  • b) technical intervention,
  • c) monitoring.

Out of the above mentioned phases this guide deals with site investigation and monitoring.

Regulations on site investigation are specified in Articles 19-22 of GD, Article 26 prescribes the rules on monitoring.

The background concentration value (A), the pollution limit value (B) and the intervention pollution limit value (Ci) the definitions of which are specified in Article 3 of GD and Annex 1 of JD - determined per groups of substances are indicated in Annex 2 of JD for soil and geological medium, and Annex 3 for groundwater. Beyond the above mentioned tables of limit values the GD specifies the remediation pollution limit value (D): it means the concentration prescribed in an official ruling to be achieved by remediation with the aim of preventing any damage to human health and ecosystems. This value is to be determined on the basis of a complex assessment carried out as part of the remediation procedure, including measurements of pollutant distribution in environmental elements, its behaviour, transport and extent as well as modelling and site specific quantitative risk assessment carried out with regard to the land uses. The requirements to be considered while determining the remediation pollution limit value (D) are specified in Article 21 of GD.

Site investigation may only be performed by qualified and entitled persons. Experts need

  • the license for the conduction of environmental audits (granted by the Ministry for Environment and Water authorised by the Ministerial Decree 12/1996. (VII.4.) KTM);
  • accreditation for sampling (issued by the Hungarian Accrediting Body authorised by Act XXIX of 1995).

Chemical analyses in connection with site investigation may be performed by accredited laboratories.

If planning activities are part of the site investigation the following further entitlements are recommended:

  • Designer category A (leading designer) entitling for the construction of hydraulic structures in the field of hydrogeology (granted by the competent Chamber of Engineers authorised by the Government Decree 157/1997. (IX.26.) Korm. and the Ministerial Decree 3/1998. (II.11.) KHVM);
  • Leading designer entitlement for geotechnics in the fields of environmental geotechnics and geology, engineering geology (granted by the competent Chamber of Engineers authorised by the Government Decree 157/1997. (IX.26.) Korm. and the Ministerial Decree 3/1998. (II.11.) KHVM);
  • Environmental experts entitlement in the fields of rock- and soil protection, water quality protection and environmental state assessment (issued by the Ministry for Environment and Water authorised by the Decree 6/1985. (XII. 28.) OKTH).

Geological data gained in the course of field investigations should be handled acc. to Annex 1 of the Joint Decree 4/1997. (III.. 5.) IKIM-KTM-KHVM on the range and delivery of geological research data to the Hungarian Geological Survey.