Remediation handbook 4.
Remediation technologies
Contents

  • PREFACE
  • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 1.1. Place and role of remediation in environmental protection
    • 1.2. Remediation in the international practice
    • 1.3. National Remediation Program
  • 2. BASIC TERMS, FUNDAMENTALS
    • 2.1. Basic terms
    • 2.2. Short description of the geological medium and groundwater
    • 2.3. Short overview on dangerous substances, impacts and risks
    • 2.4. Schematic presentation of contaminant transport processes
  • 3. REMEDIATION PRINCIPLES, CONSIDERATIONS FOR DECISION MAKING, CLASSIFICATION OF TECHNOLOGIES
    • 3.1. Possibilities to reduce environmental risk
    • 3.2. Classifications of remedial methods
      • 3.2.1. Technology types
      • 3.2.2. Technologies listed acc. to environmental elements
      • 3.2.3. Technologies listed acc. to pollutants
  • 4. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF TECHNOLOGIES
    • Treatment of soils, sediments and sludge
    • In situ technologies
    • 4.1. Bioventing
    • 4.2. Enhanced bioremediation
    • 4.3. Landfarming
    • 4.4. Natural attenuation
    • 4.5. Phytoremediation
    • 4.6. Electrokinetic remediation
    • 4.7. Fracturing
    • 4.8. Soil flushing
    • 4.9. Soil vapour extraction
    • 4.10. Solidification/Stabilisation
    • 4.11. Soil vapour extraction thermally enhanced
    • Ex situ technologies
    • 4.12. Biopiles
    • 4.13. Composting
    • 4.14. Degradation by fungi
    • 4.15. Agrotechnical soil treatment
    • 4.16. Slurry phase bioremediation
    • 4.17. Chemical extraction
    • 4.18. Chemical oxidation-reduction
    • 4.19. Dehalogenation
    • 4.20. Separation
    • 4.21. Soil washing
    • 4.22. Soil vapour extraction
    • 4.23. Solar detoxification
    • 4.24. Solidification, stabilisation
    • 4.25. Hot gas decontamination
    • 4.26. Incineration
    • 4.27. Open burning/Open detonation
    • 4.28. Pyrolysis
    • 4.29. Thermal desorption
    • 4.30. Capping
    • 4.31. Capping, drainage and recultivation
    • 4.32. Excavation, transport and deposition with soil replacing
    • Treatment of shallow groundwater, surface water and leachate
    • In situ technologies
    • 4.33. Cometabolic degradation
    • 4.34. Enhanced bioremediation
    • 4.35. Natural attenuation
    • 4.36. Phytoremediation
    • 4.37. Soil vapour extraction
    • 4.38. Air sparging
    • 4.39. Vacuum-enhanced free-product recovery and bioventing
    • 4.40. Directional wells
    • 4.41. Dual phase extraction
    • 4.42. In-well air stripping
    • 4.43. Hot water or gas stripping
    • 4.44. Hydrofracturing
    • 4.45. Passive/active treatment walls
    • Ex situ technologies
    • 4.46. Bioreactor
    • 4.47. Constructed wetlands
    • 4.48. Adsorption, absorption
    • 4.49. Air stripping
    • 4.50. Activated carbon adsorption
    • 4.51. Ion exchange
    • 4.52. Precipitation, coagulation
    • 4.53. Separation
    • 4.54. Sprinkler irrigation
    • 4.55. UV oxidation
    • 4.56. Groundwater pumping
    • 4.57. Barriers
    • Treatment of exit gas (emission into air)
    • 4.58. Biofiltration
    • 4.59. High energy destruction
    • 4.60. Membrane separation
    • 4.61. Oxidation
    • 4.62. Activated carbon adsorption


  • ANNEXES
    • 1. Definitions
    • 2. Bibliography
    • 3. Abbreviations and terms
    • 4. Databases on internet, CD

INTRODUCTION

Besides the interventions to control accidental pollution (the so-called “immediate measures”) remediation technologies appropriate for the successful remediation of the geological medium and groundwater as well as for the mitigation of damage have been in use as tools of environmental protection since the beginning of the nineties in Hungary. Among remediation works the mitigation and elimination of environmental damage in the areas and surroundings of the earlier soviet military sites were of especial importance.

According to the preliminary surveys the number of polluted sites in Hungary exceeds 20 000.

The National Environmental Remediation Program and its sub-programs enable the survey of the polluted areas and the elimination of the damage by providing funds from the state budget since the middle of the nineties. State budget funds are mainly to support the elimination of the so-called “left behind” contaminations, with regard to the “polluter pays” principle.

Acc. to international practice guidances and handbooks were elaborated so as to support the development of a uniform approach used by Hungarian experts in the field of surveys, remediation measures and connected state administration tasks.

In addition to the publications already available this handbook describes - following to the fundamentals - remediation technologies of the contaminated geological medium and groundwater based on the Remediation Technologies Screening Matrix and Reference Guide (1997) of the US Department of Defence (DoD), which is currently considered to be the most comprehensive on the subject. In order to bring the handbook up-to-date before publication we entered changes and modernisation processes of technologies, which occurred after the manuscript had been closed more than one year ago. Watching the course of development and introduction of new technologies it can be observed that about 10 new technologies – in the development-introduction phase - have become known in the course of the last 2-3 years; and several of them are already in practical use (f. e. the rock-freezing method).

We hope that this publication does not only raise the interest of Hungarian experts and facilitate the use of a wide range of international literature and up-to-date data carrier but contributes to the development and introduction of new and effective processes applicable under Hungarian circumstances as well.
It is to emphasise, that the planning and implementation of a given remediation technology requires the thorough knowledge of the main and accessory pollutants and the contaminated area (geological medium and groundwater), and the consideration of possible additional effects.